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关于审美反映论的语言维度

On the Language Dimension of Aesthetic Reflectionism

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【作者】 刘阳

【Author】 Liu Yang;East China Normal University;

【机构】 华东师范大学中文系

【摘要】 作为我国当代文艺学界最具影响力的学者之一,王元骧教授近年来所持的审美超越论,是其在新时期产生很大学术影响的审美反映论的有机发展。因为他在新时期初将艺术从认识论思路支配中解放出来、赋予其审美性特质时,所持的一个基本理由是艺术家具有"审美心理结构":不仅能借此在反映中发挥选择作用而"经过作家审美心理结构的分解和筛选",而且能借此在反映中发挥调节作用而以"自己的审美心理结构去反映现实"。这便区隔了审美心理与一般心理,已孕育了审美超越思想。但区隔根本上仍是认识论思路支配的策略。因为按语言作为符号系统的替代本性,所有领域都建立于"被语言说成"这个共同而唯一的基准,不再有区隔及其超越性后果。晚近国际学界对审美主义的反思对此提供了理据。从理论体系上追溯,这与王元骧教授当时主要吸收的贡布里希预成图式思想有关,进而与他对语言在审美反映中所处位置的看法有关。在充分肯定这一理论探索取得的成果之际,似乎可以追问这种为艺术家所特有的"审美心理结构"是否存在,其神秘性有否沦入被维特根斯坦论证为不可能存在的私有语言,预成图式作为艺术家观看世界的起点是否足以解释艺术创造,被定位于心理机制的选择与调节作用如何协调于语言。语言论的学理挑战从而可以成为审美反映论进一步发展自身的方向。

【Abstract】 One of the most influential scholars in contemporary China is Professor Wang Yuanxiang whose recent theory of aesthetic transcendence is a development of his aesthetic reflectionism,a theory which has been very influential.When he liberated art from the domination of epistemology and endowed it with aesthetic characteristics at the beginning of the new period,he argued that artists had the "aesthetic structure of psychology". "Aesthetic structure" is what divides aesthetic psychology from general psychology,and generates the idea of aesthetic transcendence.But partition is essentially a strategy dominated by epistemology.Because according to the substitutional nature of the language symbol system,all fields share the unique benchmark of "being made by language",without any division and transcendental consequences.Recently,the reflection of aestheticism has provided a basis for this idea.While fully affirming the achievements of this theoretical exploration,it seems reasonable to ask whether this artist-specific "aesthetic psychological structure" exists.The theoretical challenge of linguistic aesthetics can be seen as a direction of further development of aesthetic reflectionism.

  • 【文献出处】 马克思主义美学研究 ,Research on Marxist Aesthetics , 编辑部邮箱 ,2019年01期
  • 【分类号】I01
  • 【下载频次】41
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