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肖像凝视的视觉效力——论南希《肖像画的凝视》中的双重凝视

Visual Effects of Gaze in Portraiture: On the Dual-Gaze of Le Regard du Portrait

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【作者】 陆颖

【Author】 Lu Ying;Zhejiang Normal University;

【机构】 浙江师范大学文化创意与传播学院

【摘要】 《肖像画的凝视》(Le Regard du Portrait)是让-吕克·南希(Jean-Luc Nancy)在2000年发表的一本画论小册,书中反映了南希本人对肖像画这一艺术形式及肖像画主体的理解。肖像无时无刻不在与个人主体性发生关联与对话,肖像画的凝视是主体性的凝视却又绝非囿于主体性之困。南希凝视理论的核心观点是凝视的"双重性",其对肖像画凝视的思考大体拆解为以下四个层面:①强调肖像画的自主性,将其视其为主体的出生或再造、缺席或死亡。②肖像画与人物主体之间存在相似性,南希强调正是主体的缺席成全了肖像画的相似性,使画像具有脱离于现实真实的自主性。③肖像画与主体之间的暖昧与张力在于,肖像画的凝视能够唤起读图者对自身"在场"感的回归,即南希所说的由外而内的"回撤"。④肖像画的凝视完成的是一种主体性的打开或延展,是向自身的回返,借由肖像画可以最终解答的问题是:肖像画作为"精神性的生命"如何思考自身和检视自身。

【Abstract】 Le Regard du Portrait,written by Jean-Luc Nancy in 2000,reflects Nancy’s understanding of portraiture and the subjectivity of the portrait.Portraiture has been connected to and communicated with subjectivities constantly,which means the gaze of the portrait is the gaze of subjectivities but much more than that.This paper summarizes the gaze theory of Nancy and compares it with ideas of Lacan,Sartre and Merleau-Ponty;it then analyzes the relationship among those theories.Based on the gaze theory of Nancy,there are four levels of thinking in Le Regard du Portrait;a)Nancy emphasizes the autonomy of portraiture and regards it as the rebirth,absence or death of subjectivity;b)there is similarity between the portraiture and the subject that is being painted.However,what Nancy has paid attention to is that,it is the absence of subjectivity that leads to the similarity of the portrait and makes the portrait independent of the reality;c)the ambiguity and tension between portraiture and the subjectivity lies in the fact that,even though the portrait can be independent of the subject being painted,the gaze of portrait is able to arouse readers’ sense of presence during image reading,which was termed "retrait" by Nancy;d)the gaze of portrait is an extension and also a turning back of subject.As a reflection of spiritual life,the primary issue that portraiture has to respond to is how to reflect on and gaze at oneself.

  • 【文献出处】 马克思主义美学研究 ,Research on Marxist Aesthetics , 编辑部邮箱 ,2019年01期
  • 【分类号】J205
  • 【下载频次】59
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