Impact of Marital Status on Women’s Labor Force Participation——Joining Endogeneity Investigation
【摘要】 婚姻是影响女性劳动参与的一个重要因素,但是国内已有研究只是将婚姻状态作为控制变量,缺乏对婚姻状态与劳动参与之间作用机理的深入分析,女性市场劳动参与和其婚姻状态之间的内生性也一直被忽视。本文从劳动参与决策出发,从市场工资与保留工资的决定因素入手,使用第三期妇女社会地位调查数据进行实证分析,在婚姻的框架下分别探讨个人特征、家庭特征、世代特征和宏观经济特征对女性劳动参与的影响。基于Probit模型的回归结果,已婚状态和未婚相比对女性的劳动参与存在显著的负向影响,对城镇女性的负向影响大于对农村女性的负向影响。对于不同出生队列,婚姻状态对女性劳动参与的影响存在差异。Wald检验发现对于城镇样本,婚姻状态和劳动参与之间确实存在内生关系,对于农村样本,婚姻状态对于劳动参与并不是一个内生变量,因此后文的内生性分析是基于城镇样本进行的。在通过人口性别比和婚姻登记条例的修订控制住内生性后,通过两步法的IV Probit模型回归结果显示已婚状态对城镇女性劳动参与的负向影响显著变大,这与现在很多城市女性因为接受教育和追求事业而晚婚密切相关。提高已婚女性的劳动参与需要社会公共服务体系和劳动力市场的完善,缓解女性面临的家庭和事业的冲突。
【Abstract】 Marriage has always been an important factor that affects women’s labor force participation.However,domestic research has only regard marital status as a control variable,lacking an in-depth analysis of the mechanism between marital status and labor force participation,and endogenous problems have not received attention. Based on labor force participation decision-making,starting from the determinants of market wages and reserved wage,the empirical analysis is carried out using the Third Survey of Women’s Social Status data. Under the framework of marriage,the effects of personal characteristics,family characteristics,generational characteristics and macroeconomic characteristics on female labor force participation are discussed. Based on the Probit model the regression results show that the married status has a significant negative impact on women’s labor participation compared with unmarried,and the negative impact on urban women is greater than the negative impact on rural women. For different birth cohorts,the influence of marital status on female labor force participation is different. Through the Wald test,it is found that there is an endogenous relationship between marital status and labor force participation for urban samples. For rural samples,marital status is not an endogenous variable for labor force participation,so the endogenous analysis of the following is based on urban samples. The regression results of the two-step IV Probit model show that the negative impact of married status on labor force participation has been significantly greater after endogeneity has been controled through the population sex ratio and revision of marriage registration regulations. This is closely related to the fact that many urban women nowadays are late married because of their education and career pursuit. Improving the labor force participation of married women requires the improvement of the social public service system and labor market to alleviate the conflict between family and career for women.
【Key words】 Marital Status； Endogeneity； Women’s Labor Force Participation；
- 【文献出处】 人口学刊 ,Population Journal , 编辑部邮箱 ,2019年04期