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市场潜能、有效边界与中国劳动力市场效率

Market Potential,Effective Border and Labor Efficiency in China

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【作者】 唐代盛盛伟

【Author】 TANG Daisheng;SHENG Wei;School of Economics and Management,Beijing Jiaotong University;Department of Economics,Southwest Minzu University;

【机构】 北京交通大学经济管理学院西南民族大学经济学院

【摘要】 文章基于新经济地理学D-S理论框架与空间计量方法,采用2012-2014年中国劳动力动态调查(CLDS)微观样本和省域面板数据构建多层次回归模型,从劳动者工资和就业二元视角界定我国劳动力市场的市场潜能空间边界。研究发现在全域空间上,市场潜能显著提升了我国劳动者工资和就业水平,给劳动力市场带来"双重利好";在局域空间上,随着省域间隔距离增加,市场潜能难以持续发挥对劳动力市场的空间效应,在一定半径范围呈现出"边界效应"。分组来看,市场潜能对沿海地区的工资增收效应最大,其次是沿边和内陆地区,对于就业水平的改善在内陆地区最为显著;扩大市场潜能将有助于缩小高、低人力资本聚集区域的工资水平差距,改善低人力资本区域和群体的就业水平,不过市场潜能对高、低人力资本群体产生了工资"临界分割效应";高速铁路相对于普通铁路产生的"地理收缩效应"进一步提升了市场潜能对劳动者就业的边际增长效应,对劳动者工资边际增长效应弱于普通铁路时期,但整体效应仍然显著为正。综合而言,突破市场潜能有效边界进行"空间重塑"以及在有效边界内进行"空间修复",有效调节地区之间由于市场潜能差异而导致的工资水平和就业增长的差距,从而从整体上提升我国劳动力市场效率。

【Abstract】 Based on D-S theoretical framework in New Economic Geography and spatial econometrics,the paper defines the spatial boundary of market potential of China’s labor market on the dual perspectives of wage and employment by constructing a multi-level regression model and using the provincial panel data and Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey(CLDS)micro-samples from 2012 to 2014. The study shows that,in the overall space,the market potential significantly raise the wage and employment,which brings"double benefits"to the labor market. In the local space,as the distance between provinces increases,it is difficult for the market potential to continuously exert its spatial effect on the labor market,and the"boundary effect"appears in a certain radius. In terms of grouping,on geographical location’s perspective,the market potential has the largest effect to raise wage in coastal areas,then the border and inland areas,and the improvement of employment in inland areas is the most remarkable;on human capital’s perspective,expanding market potential will narrow the wage gap between high and low human capital concentration and improve the employment of regions and groups with low human capital,however,the market potential has a"classification effect"on wage between high and low human capital groups;on the mode of transportation’s perspective,the"geographical shrinkage effect"generated by the development of high-speed rail further improves the marginal growth effect of market potential on employment. The marginal growth effect on wage of high-speed rail is relatively weaker than that of ordinary railways,but the gross effect is still positive. According to the above judges,"reshape the space"by breaking through the effective boundary of market potential and"spatial fix"within the effective boundary can effectively adjust the gap of wage and employment caused by market potential differences between regions,and it will finally improve the efficiency of labor market.

【基金】 中央高校基本科研业务费重点项目:中国老年人社会参与的结构维度、测量体系及提升策略研究(2018JBWB001)
  • 【文献出处】 人口学刊 ,Population Journal , 编辑部邮箱 ,2019年04期
  • 【分类号】F124;F249.21
  • 【被引频次】1
  • 【下载频次】192
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