Grandparents’ Childcare and Early Retirement for Middle-aged and Older Adults in China
【摘要】 随着我国人口老龄化进程的加快,人口红利对于经济增长的助力将消失殆尽,提前退休等人力资本利用不充分的劳动力退出行为将成为制约经济发展的重要因素。本文基于家庭分工背景,利用CHARLS 2011、2013和2015年三期调查数据,使用工具变量法分析隔代照料与中老年人提前退休行为之间的因果关系。研究发现隔代照料会显著增加中老年人提前退休概率约18.8%以及显著提前中老年人退休年龄1.4年左右,主观报告的提前退休指标存在严重的测量偏差;隔代照料对中老年人提前退休行为的影响存在异质性,对女性、受教育程度低、只有一个子女、在企业工作的中老年人影响更大。进一步讨论发现社区保姆工资与祖辈隔代照料行为存在显著的正相关关系,而隔代照料并没有增加子女对父母提供经济转移的概率,在市场照料资源不足的情况下家庭隔代照料仍具有一定刚性需求。这表明中老年人对孙辈提供隔代照料将使渐进、弹性式延迟退休的政策效果变得十分有限。但辅以税收减免或抵扣以及补贴政策,发展和完善社会照料资源市场,可以有效缓解中老年人在家庭照料责任和劳动力市场就业行为之间的冲突,保障我国即将出台的延迟退休政策的实施效果。
【Abstract】 As the acceleration of process in aging population in China,the power of demographic dividend to drive the growth of economic has gone. The decisions of quitting the labor market which don’t make the best use of human capital,such as early retirement,has become an important factor that restricts economic development in China. From the perspective of domestic division of labor,based on three years data of CHARLS 2011、2013、2015,this paper uses the instrumental variable method to analyze the causality between caring for grandchildren and the decision of early retirement. The study found that caring for grandchildren,significantly increased the risk of early retirement by about 18.8% and significantly advanced the retirement age by about 1.4 years for middle-aged and elderly people,and found that the index of subjectively reported early retirement has serious measurement bias;we also found that the effect is stronger for women with one child,and those are in lower education level,and work in the enterprise. Further discussion found that there was a significant positive correlation between the salary of babysitting in community level and caring for grandchildren while providing intergenerational care did not increase the probability of children’s economic transfer to their parents. Family intergenerational care still had some rigidity under the condition of insufficient market care resources. This show that the effectiveness of retirement age policy of gradually and flexibly delaying the mandatory retirement age will be very limited. However,inspiring with tax policy,as well as subsidy policies,developing and perfecting the services market of caring can effectively defuse the conflict between family care responsibilities and grandparents’ employment behavior of the labor market,which will ensure the implementation effects of the retirement policy that delaying the mandatory retirement age.
【Key words】 Grandchild Care； Early Retirement； Retirement Age； Retirement Age Policy；
- 【文献出处】 人口学刊 ,Population Journal , 编辑部邮箱 ,2019年04期