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独生子女与非独生子女家庭老年人养老意愿及其影响因素研究

The Study of the Intention for Old-age Support and Its Determinants:Comparing One-child Families and Multiple Children Families

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【作者】 陶涛刘雯莉

【Author】 TAO Tao;LIU Wenli;Population Development Studies Center,Renmin University of China;

【机构】 中国人民大学人口与发展研究中心

【摘要】 本研究利用2014年"中国老年社会追踪调查"数据分别考察独生子女家庭和非独生子女家庭老年人的养老观念和养老意愿,重点分析两类老年人养老意愿的影响因素及其差异。结果表明大部分老年人仍然认同"养儿防老"的观念,认为养老责任主要应由子女承担,在家庭中养老仍是最为老年人接受的方式。与非独生子女家庭老年人相比,独生子女家庭老年人更偏好独立居住,对子女养老责任的期待更低,但对子女精神支持的需求更高,同时更加企盼来自政府和制度的养老支持。个人因素和家庭因素共同塑造了老年人的养老意愿,但对两类老年人的影响不同。从个人因素看,受教育程度的高低会更为显著地影响非独生子女家庭老年人的养老意愿,特别是影响其对机构养老的态度。从家庭特征看,对独生子女家庭老年人而言,配偶发挥的作用似乎超过了子女,对其养老意愿产生了更为重要的影响,"夫妻健全"的独生子女父母更偏好独立养老。"养儿"对两类老年人均有影响,但意义不同。对于非独生子女家庭老年人而言,有无儿子显著影响的是"在自己家还是子女家养老"的家庭内部决策;对于独生子女家庭老年人而言,有无儿子则显著影响了其养老地点在家庭和社会之间的抉择。

【Abstract】 Using data from China Longitudinal Aging Social Survey in 2014,this study examines the differences of the concept and intention for old-age support of Chinese elderly among one-child families and multiple children families,mainly focusing on the determinants of their intention. Results show that:Firstly,the majority of the elderly still agree with the concept of"bring up sons to support parents in their old age",laying responsibilities of old-age support on their children. For them,family support is still the most acceptable way. Nevertheless,there are differences between the elderly from one-child and multiple children families. Compared with the elderly of multiple children families,those who come from one-child families prefer to live independently. They have lower expectation of their children’s pension obligations,higher demand for spiritual support from their children and higher expectation of the support from government and society. Secondly,individual-level and family-level factors both influence the intention for old-age support,while they play different roles in different families. Educational level has a more significant impact on the elderly of multiple children families,especially on their attitude toward institutional care. For the elderly of one-child families,the role of spouse seems more important than that of children. Older adults with spouse prefer to live independently. Having a son or not has a totally different meaning for these two types of elderly:For the elderly of multiple children families,it significantly influences inside-family decision,i.e. raising a son encourages them to live with their offspring;for the elderly of one-child families,it affects the choice between family and society.

【基金】 中国人民大学2018年度“中央高校建设世界一流大学(学科)和特色发展引导专项资金”
  • 【文献出处】 人口学刊 ,Population Journal , 编辑部邮箱 ,2019年04期
  • 【分类号】D669.6;C924.24
  • 【下载频次】813
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